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AHI Issues Statement on 44th Anniversary of Invasion of Cyprus

No. 44

WASHINGTON, DC — The American Hellenic Institute (AHI) remembers the solemn 44th anniversary of NATO member Turkey’s brutal invasion of the Republic of Cyprus, a member of the European Union.

For 44 years, the Republic of Cyprus, and its people, have endured an illegal occupation by 40,000 Turkish troops, and massive violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms by Turkey. AHI calls for the immediate removal of all Turkish troops that occupy the Republic of Cyprus. Also, during the occupation, Turkey continues to violate U.S. law on an ongoing basis by transferring American-made weapons from mainland Turkey to Turkish-occupied Cyprus.  Congress must put a stop to this illegal transfer of weapons or otherwise it is complicit in breaking its own laws.  Additionally, Turkey’s illegal occupation of Cyprus has had an impact upon The Committee on Missing Persons’s ability to access certain Turkish military installations on Cyprus to excavate the remains of Cypriots missing since the tragic events that occurred on the island for proper identification.  Approximately 926 Greek Cypriots, including four American citizens of Cypriot heritage, remain missing and a large majority of these cases remain unresolved. 

Furthermore, Turkey’s threats and inflammatory rhetoric toward Cyprus are unacceptable and clearly demonstrate it is a force of instability in the Eastern Mediterranean.  In addition to the Turkish troops illegally occupying the Republic of Cyprus, Turkish threats toward Cyprus (and Greece and international oil companies) have included Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s warning to “not step out of line” when it comes to energy exploration in Cyprus’s exclusive economic zone.  In February, the threat was taken to new, dangerous heights when Turkish warships harassed the surveying vessel of Italian oil company Eni while it was in the exclusive economic zone of Cyprus and threatened to sink the vessel. 

Following last year’s disappointing closure of the Conference on Cyprus held in Crans-Montana, Switzerland, the United States must step-up its engagement on the Cyprus issue.  AHI contends the United States can play a crucial role in finding a Cyprus solution by getting realistic with Turkey and eliminating its double-standard policy that has rewarded Turkish aggression and ignored countless violations of the rule of law in Cyprus.  The U.S. must publicly state that Turkey must remove its troops from Cyprus.  The withdrawal of Turkish troops would be a significant confidence building measure in the peace process. As such, any positive resolution cannot be foreseen until United States policymakers press Turkey to forgo its intransigence, which was on full display at the Conference on Cyprus, last July.  There, Turkey’s insistence to maintain the Treaty of Guarantee, which would allow for future unilateral Turkish military interventions, was completely unacceptable and contradicted the governing principals of a European Union member state.

Moreover, this is not the Cyprus of 44 years ago.  Cyprus has made tremendous strides and is viewed today by the United States as a geostrategic partner because of its commitment to counterterrorism and security, as a signatory to the United States’ Proliferation Security Initiative; its potential as a resource for energy, and as Cyprus strengthens relations with Israel.  Turkey’s threats and gunboat diplomacy only serves to hinder Cyprus’s further development as key contributor to security in the Eastern Mediterranean, the broader region, and Europe.

AHI maintains the Cypriots themselves should have ownership of the settlement process and the solution should be by the Cypriot people for the Cypriot people. Advancing these positions will underscore support for the rule of law and respect for international law.  It will demonstrate the United States’ dedication to solving the 44-year-old Cyprus problem.

Therefore, as we mark the 44th anniversary of Turkey’s invasion of the Republic of Cyprus, AHI continues to:

  • Support a settlement of the Cyprus problem through negotiations based on a bi-zonal, bi communal federation in a state with a single sovereignty and international personality, incorporating the norms of a constitutional democracy embracing key American principles, the EU acquis communautaire and EU Founding Treaty, UN resolutions on Cyprus, the pertinent decisions of the European Court of Human Rights and of other European Courts -- as is the best interests of the United States;
  • Call for the immediate withdrawal of Turkey’s 40,000 occupation troops illegally in Cyprus;
  • Call for the return of the estimated at least 200,000 illegal Turkish colonists/settlers in Cyprus to Turkey and for a halt to the illegal bringing of more colonists/settlers from Turkey to occupied Cyprus to illegally change the demographics of the island and of the Turkish Cypriot community, all of which is in violation of the Geneva Convention of 1949;
  • Call for the return of the sealed-off section of Famagusta to its lawful inhabitants by Turkey as noted in UN Security Council resolutions 550 (1984) and 789 (1992) and the 1979 High Level Agreement between the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities, which stated that priority should be given to the resettlement of Famagusta under the UN auspices.  This position has been reaffirmed by the European Parliament in written declarations;
  • Call for the restoration of property illegally taken in the northern-occupied area of Cyprus to their rightful owners, and payment by Turkey to the owners for deprivation of the use of their property;
  • Urge the U.S. government to direct Turkey to tear down the green line barbed wire fence across the face of Cyprus that makes Nicosia the last divided capital in Europe; and
  • Urge the U.S. government to call on Ankara to normalize relations with the Republic of Cyprus, a member of the European Union (a body to which Turkey aspires to join).


On July 20, 1974, Turkey invaded the Republic of Cyprus with the illegal use of U.S.-supplied arms and equipment in violation of the U.S. Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, the United Nations Charter, the NATO Treaty, and customary international law. Turkey occupied about four percent of Cyprus during the initial phase of its invasion. Furthermore, on August 14, 1974, three weeks after the legitimate government of Cyprus was restored, Turkey launched the second phase of its invasion of Cyprus, grabbing 37 percent of Cyprus’s sovereign territory, killed innocent civilians, forced 170,000 Greek Cypriots from their homes and properties, and committed mass destruction of Cyprus’ cultural and religious heritage, including an estimated 500 churches and religious sites belonging to Christian and Jewish communities.  

AHI Objects to Administration’s Position on F-35s to Turkey


No. 43

WASHINGTON, DC — The American Hellenic Institute (AHI) sent a letter to Office of Management and Budget Director Mick Mulvaney to convey strong disagreement with the Trump administration’s announced opposition to a section of the FY2019 Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations bill that restricts the use of funding for the transfer of F-35 aircraft to Turkey.

In the letter, AHI President Nick Larigakis disagrees strongly with the Administration’s contention that Turkey is an important NATO ally.  Larigakis cites Turkish threats directed at the United States military and Turkey’s purchase of Russian S-400 missiles.  Regarding the latter, Larigakis points to a quote from NATO’s Allied Air Commander that expresses the S-400s are not to the advantage of the coalition.  Larigakis also references the strong possibility the S-400 purchase will trigger U.S. sanctions under the recently enacted Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) and Turkey’s unjust imprisonment of U.S. citizens. 

In addition, Larigakis states Turkey is the force that creates instability in the Eastern Mediterranean.  Turkey’s countless violations of Greece’s sovereignty in the Aegean, and Turkish aggression toward the surveying vessel of a multinational oil company (Eni) in the exclusive economic zone of Cyprus, were cited as recent examples.

 “We believe it is time for the United States to send a strong message to Turkey that its actions and behavior run contrary to the ideals and principles of the United States and NATO and pose a threat to United States security and interests,” Larigakis wrote. “We strongly contend that message is to halt the transfer of F-35 aircraft to Turkey.”

AHI Decries NATO Secretary General’s Praise of Turkey


No. 42

WASHINGTON, DC — The American Hellenic Institute (AHI) decries NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg’s praise of Turkey as a highly-valued ally in an interview published July 9 in Hürriyet Daily News.

In the interview, Stoltenberg says, “Turkey makes many contributions to our shared security…We recognize that Turkey faces a difficult security situation, and NATO stands in solidarity with Turkey… So Turkey does a lot, and this support is deeply valued.”

“Turkey does not share NATO’s core purpose or best interests,” AHI President Nick Larigakis said. “Turkey is a force of instability in the Eastern Mediterranean and greater region.  It has demonstrated aggressive and provocative behavior toward the United States and Greece, which are actions unbecoming of a NATO member nation.  Furthermore, we are approaching the forty-fourth anniversary of Turkey’s illegal invasion and occupation of the Republic of Cyprus, a current EU-member nation, and Turkey has harassed research vessels of multinational oil firms in the exclusive economic zone of Cyprus.”

Larigakis added, “Secretary General Stoltenberg’s inability to express concern about Turkey’s aggressive behavior, let alone exploring how to ease intra-Alliance tensions caused by Turkey, is appalling,”

In May, AHI sent a letter to NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg to convey strong concern regarding the actions and behavior of NATO member Turkey toward fellow Alliance member countries. AHI also expressed profound disappointment with NATO’s inability to address intra-Alliance conflicts because it lacks a provision or mechanism to deal with such an issue.

AHI Applauds Additional Congressional Pressure on F-35 Transfer to Turkey


No. 41

WASHINGTON, DC — The American Hellenic Institute (AHI) applauds additional pressure from Congress in recent weeks to prohibit the transfer of F-35 fighter jets to Turkey.

Forty-four U.S representatives, led by U.S. Reps. John Sarbanes (D-MD) and Gus Bilirakis (R-FL), supported a June 15 letter to Secretary of Defense James Mattis that urged the secretary to prevent the planned delivery of F-35 jets to Turkey.  Turkey’s actions that are undermining U.S. interests around the world, which includes its “repeated military actions against American interests;” the degradation of human rights and democracy under President Erdogan, and Turkey’s “clear intention to build a strategic partnership with Russia” were all presented as reasons for the legislators’ urging of the prevention of the transfer of F-35 fighter jets to Turkey.

Separately, the Senate Committee on Appropriations adopted an amendment in its Fiscal Year 2019 Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Bill that contains language that would halt the transfer of F-35s to Turkey until Secretary of State Mike Pompeo certifies Turkey will not acquire the Russian S-400 Missile Defense System.  U.S. Senator Chris Van Hollen (D-MD), a member of the Appropriations Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations, and Related Agencies, successfully secured the amendment. Chairman of the State and Foreign Operations Subcommittee Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.), and Senator James Lankford (R-OK), sponsored the amendment. 

According to a statement issued by Senator Van Hollen, “This new legislative language goes a step further than the National Defense Authorization Act that the Senate passed this week, which restricts funding on the transfer of F-35 aircrafts to Turkey until the Secretary of Defense issues a report on removing Turkey from the F-35 program.”

“As we have long maintained, Turkey does not share the United States’ national interests nor is it a reliable ally,” AHI President Nick Larigakis said. “It is long overdue to hold Turkey accountable, and we are encouraged Congress is taking the measures to do so. We are grateful to the legislators who have come together in bipartisan fashion, in both chambers of Congress, to send a strong message to Turkey.”

He added, “We especially thank Congressmen Sarbanes and Bilirakis in the House, and Senators Graham, Lankford, and Van Hollen, for their leadership on this issue.”